AI programs have been written in just about every language ever created. The most common seem to be Lisp, Prolog, C/C++, recently Java, and even more recently, Python.
Programming Languages For (AI):
In the 1970s and 1980s, Lisp was the best developed and most widely used language that offered the following set of features:
- Easy dynamic creation of new objects, with automatic garbage collection,
- A library of collection types, including dynamically-sized lists and hashtables,
- A development cycle that allows interactive evaluation of expressions and re-compilation of functions or files while the program is running,
- Well-developed compilers that could generate efficient code,
- A macro system that let developers create a domain-specific level of abstraction on which to build the next level.
These five features are valuable for programming in general, but especially for exploratory problems where the solution is not clear at the onset; thus Lisp was a great choice for AI research. Over the years, these features started migrating into other languages, and Lisp no longer had a unique position; today, (5) is the only remaining feature in which Lisp excels compared to other languages.
Prolog is a high-level programming language based on formal logic. Unlike traditional programming languages that are based on performing sequences of commands, Prolog is based on defining and then solving logical formulas. Prolog is sometimes called a declarative language or a rule-based language because its programs consist of a list of facts and rules. Prolog is used widely for artificial intelligence applications, particularly expert systems.
Java uses several ideas from Lisp, most notably garbage collection. Its portability makes it desirable for just about any application, and it has a decent set of built-in types. Java is still not as high-level as Lisp or Prolog, and not as fast as C.
Python is the preferred choice of many to start with artificial intelligence because Python is one of the easiest and the fastest programming language out there, Mostly AI developers suggest Python for Artificial Intelligence development.
5. Haskell AI:
Most of the major algorithms are already available via cabal. Additionally, Haskell has CUDA bindings and is compiled to bytecode, and because it’s stateless and functional, programs can easily be executed on multiple CPUs in the cloud. So overall it’s an excellent language for AI development.
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